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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disease that causes deterioration of the
macula, the central area of the retina specially after age of 55 years of age

There are two forms of AMD:

It is possible for a person to suffer from both forms.

This is the most common type of AMD. In this form yellow deposits called drusen (waste products from metabolism) accumulates under the retina. Over time, dry AMD may advance and cause loss of vision.

Wet form occurs when new blood vessels grow. This growth is called neovascularization. These vessels are very fragile and can leak fluid and blood, resulting in scarring of the macula and potential for rapid, severe damage.

It is possible to develop AMD in only one eye. However, as the disease progresses both eyes may become affected. If an individual has macular degeneration in one eye, he or she is more likely to develop it in the other eye than someone who does not.

More light is needed for tasks such as reading

Blurry spot in centre of visual field

Blurry spot becomes larger and darker

Straight lines may appear wavy

Straight-ahead vision becomes distorted or lost entirely in a short period of time

Do not delay in informing your doctor of any changes in your vision, as they may be indicators of potential permanent damage that can happen very quickly

There are various ways:

a) Clinical evaluation  : Dilated fundus examination is done by your retina specialist with indirect ophthalmoscope & slit lamp biomicroscopy to pick up the disease.

b) Color photo :

c) Amsler Grid Test

In an eye exam, a doctor may use an Amsler grid to test for defects in the center of your vision. If you have macular degeneration, you may see blurred, faded, broken or distorted lines on the grid.

Amsler Grid Test

d) Fluorescein Angiography & Indocyanine Green Angiography

A colored dye is injected into a vein in your arm. The dye will travel to your eye and highlight the blood vessels. By using a special camera, various pictures are taken . The resulting images will show if there are any abnormal blood vessels present or any form of leakage.

e) Optical Coherence Tomography ( OCT)

Noninvasive (No injection given) imaging test. It displays detailed cross-sectional images of the retina. With this test, the doctor will find out if there is thinning or swelling of retina.

f) Optical Coherence Tomography  (OCT-A )

Noninvasive (No injection given) imaging test. It displays detailed cross-sectional images of the retina at various layers of retina. This test is very useful in follow ups , as there is no need of doing invasive investigations like FFA / ICG to see the activity of disease.

g) Fundus auto fluorescence : Non-invasive , special investigation to detect early progression of dry AMD.

h) Retro : Unique non-invasive technique which  visualizes  pathologies / disease of deeper layers which are detected at very early stage ( which are not detected by any other test)

                Our centre is the first in Central India & second in India to have this technology.

a) Dry AMD : Early stage à No treatment (follow up)

Intermediate – Anti-oxidants ( green vegetables , yellow pulpy fruits or multivitamin tablets)

Advanced – Low vision aids

Preventive measures :

  • Avoid smoking ( active & passive )

  • Control HT

  • Anti-oxidant rich food

  • Anti-oxidant tablets

  • Low fat & cholesterol diet

  • Wearing glasses with UV protection

  • Regular eye examination

b) Wet AMD : Anti VEGF injections in eye. Minimum 3 injections are needed at monthly interval , but depending upon disease, you may need more injections to preserve your existing vision.

Types of anti-VEGF :

  1. Avastin : Bevacizumab

        Not FDA approved

 Primarily used in treatment of  colon cancer

Used world wide for retinal disorders.


  1. Accenterix : Ranibizumab

                      FDA approved

                        World wide studies have been done regarding its safety & efficacy


  • Razumab : Accenterix

Biosimilar : A biopharmaceutical drug designed to have active properties   similar to one that has previously been licensed & approved.

 DCGI approved in 2015

Phase 3 trial in Indian patient with wet AMD 

No world wide trials


  1. Eylea : Aflibercept

     Multicentric trials done

     FDA approved

     Usually for PCV variant of wet AMD


  1. Brolucizumab : Most recent drug

      Multicentric trials done

      FDA approved

      For wet AMD only

c) Advanced damage : Low Vision Aids.



19, Rajiv Nagar, Near Bharat Furniture, Wardha Road, Nagpur – 440 025